Class 9 Science

Materials

UNIT I

Matter-Nature and Behaviour

  1. Matter-Nature and Behaviour:

    • Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.

  2. Nature of matter:

    • Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.

  3. Particle nature, basic units:

    • Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.

  4. Structure of atoms:

    • Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.

The World of the Living

UNIT II

Organization in the Living World

  1. Cell - Basic Unit of life :

    • Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.

  2. Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism:

    • Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).

  3. Biological Diversity:

    • Diversity of plants and animals-basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).

  4. Health and Diseases:

    • Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.

Moving Things, People and Ideas

UNIT III

Motion, Force and Work

  1. Motion:

    • Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

  2. Force and Newton’s laws :

    • Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and Reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.

  3. Gravitation:

    • Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.

  4. Floatation:

    • Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of Relative Density.

  5. Work, energy and power:

    • Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.

  6. Sound:

    • Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).

Natural Resources: Balance in nature

UNIT IV

Our 

Environment

  1. Physical resources:

  2. Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.

  3. Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature:

  4. Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen.

Food

UNIT V

Food Production

  1. Food Production:

    • Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.

Good thing about Science is that its TRUE, wheather or not you believe in it.