Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter:
Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.
Particle nature, basic units:
Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers.
Structure of atoms:
Electrons, protons and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.
The World of the Living
Organization in the Living World
Cell - Basic Unit of life :
Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism:
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).
Diversity of plants and animals-basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
Health and Diseases:
Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes.
Moving Things, People and Ideas
Motion, Force and Work
Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s laws :
Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and Reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.
Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.
Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of Relative Density.
Work, energy and power:
Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.
Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).
Natural Resources: Balance in nature
Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature:
Water, Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen.
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.